When ACM began, all team members were aware that conflict was likely to be a significant issue: Forest management stakeholders have differing and competing interests, perceptions and ideas about how natural resource management should be carried out. More people are competing for fewer resources and there are more perceived resource arenas. Rapid sociopolitical changes such as globalisation and decentralisation have also brought with them enormous conflicting issues for resource management. Within the context of ACM, where collaboration is expected, conflict is a logical consequence. We included it as an important element in our site selection process and in the evaluation of our results (Colfer 2005). And its importance became increasingly clear as our work proceeded. Between 2001 and 2006, Yurdi Yasmi conducted work on conflict related to ACM in various locations such as Sumatra and Kalimantan. His work was supported by the governance program leader, Doris Capistrano, who also arranged for another study to be conducted in Central and West Africa by Ruben de Koning.

Yasmi has continued his work on this subject, in his doctoral dissertation and subsequent publications. He now works at the Regional Community Forest Training Center for Asia and the Pacific, one of CIFOR’s important partners in the Asia-Pacific region. Although Yasmi and de Koning have left CIFOR, both of them continued to engage in the Rights and Resources Initiative, a global initiative that also addresses conflict management. CIFOR and the Regional Community Forest Training Center are among the founding members of the Rights and Resources Initiative.

Below is a list of CIFOR publications directly related to conflict.

De Koning, R., Capistrano, D. and Yasmi, Y. 2007 Forest-related conflict: impacts, links, and measures to mitigate. CIFOR and RRI, Bogor, Indonesia.

De Koning, R., Capistrano, D. and Yasmi, Y. 2007 The role of forest tenure and governance in addressing the global challenge of reducing violent conflict in forest countries. CIFOR and RRI, Bogor, Indonesia.

De Koning, R., Capistrano, D., Yasmi, Y. and Cerutti, P. 2008 Forest-related conflict: impacts, links and measures to mitigate. Rights and Resources Initiative, Washington, DC. 43p.

Wulan, Y.C., Yasmi, Y., Purba, C. and Wollenberg, E. 2004 Analisa konflik sektor kehutanan di Indonesia 1997-2003 [An analysis of forestry conflict in Indonesia from 1997-2003]. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 79p.

Wulan, Y.C., Yasmi, Y., Purba, C. and Wollenberg, E. 2004 An analysis of forestry sector conflict in Indonesia 1997-2003. CIFOR Governance Brief No. 1. 8p.

Yasmi, Y. 2002 Conflict in forest management: a study for collaborative forest management in Indonesia. MSc. Thesis, Wageningen University. 140p.Yasmi, Y. 2002 Disharmony in the heart of Borneo: a closer look at forestry conflicts in the tropics. In: Birner, R., Nurrochmat, D. and Rosyadi, S. (eds.) Sustainable development: socio-economic and environmental problems focused on Indonesian cases, 52-59. Proceedings of the International Seminar held on 20 April 2002, Göttingen, Germany. Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, Germany.

Yasmi, Y. 2003 Understanding conflict in the co-management of forests: the case of Bulungan Research Forest. International Forestry Review 5(1): 38-44.

Yasmi, Y. 2004 Natural resource conflict management case studies: an analysis of power, participation and protected areas. Forest Ecology and Management 193(3): 427-428.

Yasmi, Y. 2005 Is constructive conflict management in NRM possible? Forest, People and Governance Bulletin 6(4): 4-5.

Yasmi, Y. 2007 Institutionalization of conflict capability in the management of natural resources: theoretical perspectives and empirical experience in Indonesia. Wageningen University Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 188p.

Yasmi, Y. 2008 Peningkatan konflik dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya hutan [Escalation of NRM conflict]. In: Adnan, H., Tadjudin, D., Yuliani, L., Komarudin, H., Lopulalan, D., Siagian, Y. and Munggoro, D. (eds.) Belajar dari Bungo: mengelola sumberdaya alam di era desentralisasi, 287-298. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Yasmi, Y., Anshari, G.Z., Alqadrie, S., Budiarto, T., Ngusmanto, Abidin, E., Komarudin, H., McGrath, S., Zulkifli and Afifudin. 2005 The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang district, West Kalimantan. CIFOR, Bogor. 29p.

Yasmi, Y., Anshari, G.Z., Komarudin, H. and Alqadri, S. 2006 Stakeholder conflicts and forest decentralization policies in West Kalimantan: their dynamics and implications for future forest management. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 16(2): 167-180.

Yasmi, Y., Colfer, C.J.P., Yuliani, L., Indriatmoko, Y. and Heri, V. 2007 Conflict management approaches under unclear boundaries of the commons: experience from Danau Sentarum National Park, Indonesia. International Forestry Review 9(2): 597-609.

Yasmi, Y., Guernier, J. and Colfer, C.J.P. 2009 Positive and negative aspects of forestry conflict: the case of decentralized forest management in Indonesia. International Forestry Review 11(1): 96-108.

Yasmi, Y. and Kusumanto, Y. 2003 Learning in adaptive collaborative management of community forests: lessons from Indonesia. ETFRN 39: 111-113.

Yasmi, Y., Schanz, H. and Salim, A. 2006 Manifestation of conflict escalation in natural resource management. Environmental Science & Policy 9: 538-546.

Yasmi, Y., Yuliani, L., Indriatmoko, Y., Heri, V. and Colfer, C.J.P. 2006 Conflict management approaches under unclear boundaries of the commons: experiences from Danau Sentarum National Park: West Kalimantan. Paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference of IASCP, Bali 19-23 June 2006. http://www.iascp.org/bali/papers/Yasmi_Yurdi.pdf


These activities continue to address, in various ways, the goals of the ACM programme, which were to achieve more sustainable and equitable management of forest resources and human well-being in a multi-stakeholder environment through the development and identification of a set of models, institutional arrangements, methods, tools and strategies to empower local communities.