The Adaptive Collaborative Management Program (ACM) aims to promote social learning across stakeholders so that their ability to respond to highly dynamic situations and complexities improves. We take on dual functions: We build the capacity of partners to facilitate learning processes and at the same time observe the process from an ‘outer layer’ (see diagram below).

Users of these tools may take either the researcher’s view (observing the process) or the user’s view (facilitating the processes themselves).

To facilitate the learning process—for both researchers and facilitators—ACM team members have developed various tools, listed below.


Evans, K., de Jong, W. Cronkleton, P. Sheil, D. Lynam, T. Kusumanto, T. and Colfer, C.J.P. 2006 Guide to participatory tools for forest communities. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 37p.

Mulyana, A., Adnan, H., Indriatmoko, Y., Priyono, A. and Moeliono, M. 2008 Belajar sambil mengajar: menghadapi perubahan sosial untuk pengelolaan sumberdaya alam. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 74p.

Field guide

Evans, K. et al. 2014. Field guide to Adaptive Collaborative Management and improving women’s participation. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Various pebble distribution and other PRA methods

Colfer, C.J.P. et al. 1999 The BAG (basic assessment guide for human well-being). In: Prabhu, R. (ed.) C&I toolbox, vol. 5. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Colfer, C.J.P. et al. 1999 The grab bag: supplementary methods for assessing human well-being. In: Prabhu, R. (ed.) C&I toolbox, vol. 6. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

The who counts matrix

Colfer, C.J.P., with Prabhu, R., Gunter, M., McDougall, C., Miyasaka Porro, N. and Porro, R. 1999 Who counts most? Assessing human well-being in sustainable forest management. In: Prabhu, R. (ed.) C&I toolbox, vol. 8. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Multicriteria analysis

Mendoza, G.A. and Macoun, P. with Prabhu, R., Sukadri, D., Purnomo, H. and Hartanto, H. 1999 Guidelines for applying multi-criteria analysis to the assessment of criteria and indicators. In: Prabhu, R. (ed.) C&I toolbox, vol. 9. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Guidelines for use of C&I

Burford de Oliveira, N., McDougall, C., Ritchie, B., Hartanto, H., Haggith, M. and Setyawati, T. 2000 Developing criteria and indicators of community managed forests as assessment and learning tools: objectives, methodologies and results. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 303p.

Tiani, A.M., Nguiébouri, J. and Diaw, C. 2002 Criteria and indicators as tool for adaptative and collaborative forest management: a guide. CIFOR, Yaoundé, Cameroon.


Future scenarios

Wollenberg, E., Edmunds, D. and Buck, L. 2000 Anticipating change: scenarios as a tool for adaptive forest management (a guide). CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.


Prabhu, R., Haggith, M., Purnomo, H., Ritchie, B., Rizal, A., Sukadri, D., Taylor, J. and Yasmi, Y. 2000 CIMAT (criteria and indicators modification and adaptation tool) version 2: criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. C&I Toolbox Series No. 3. CD-ROM and user manual. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Colfer, C.J.P. 2007 Simple rules for catalyzing collective action in natural resource management contexts. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 12p.

Haggith, M. et al. 2002 CO-VIEW (collaborative vision and exploration workbench): software and manual. CD-ROM. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.


Danau Sentarum National Park, the abandoned paradise. 2005 Produced by CIFOR, Inspirit and Infinity.

Kutai National Park: there is hope. 2009 Produced by CIFOR and Infinity.

The people of Baru Pelepat, learning to change. 2006 Produced by CIFOR, Inspirit and Infinity.

Landscape game .


Participatory mapping

Anau, N., Iwan, R., van Heist, M., Limberg, G., Sudana, M. and Wollenberg, E. 2004 Negotiating more than boundaries: conflict, power and agreement building in the demarcation of village borders in Malinau. In: Colfer, C.J.P. (ed.) The equitable forest: diversity, community and natural resources. Resources for the Future/CIFOR, Washington, DC.



Purnomo, H., Priyadi, H., Yasmi, Y., Yuliani, L. and Prabhu, R. 2001 Development of multi-stakeholder scenarios of forest management: a multi-agent system simulation approach. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Purnomo, H., Yasmi, Y., Prabhu, R., Yuliani, L., Priyadi, H. and Vanclay, J.K. 2003 Multi-agent simulation of alternative scenarios of collaborative forest management. Small-Scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy 2(2)277-292.

ACM Process

Hartanto, H., Lorenzo, M.C.B., Valmores, C., Arda-Minas, L., Burton, L. and Prabhu, R. 2003 Learning together: responding to change and complexity to improve community forests in the Philippines. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 166p.

Kusumanto, T., Yuliani, L., Macoun, P., Indriatmoko, Y. and Adnan, H. 2005 Learning to adapt: managing forests together in Indonesia. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 191p.

Yuliani, E.L., Adnan, H. and Indriatmoko, Y. 2008 The use of appreciative inquiry as a tool in enhancing adaptive capacity in natural resources management. Paper presented at IASC Conference, 14-18 July 2008, Cheltenham, England.

Additional Tools

  • Heterogeneity analysis

Pokorny, B., Guilherminas, C. and Nuñes, W. 2001 Participatory analysis of heterogeneity as a tool to consolidate collaborative initiatives at community level. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

  • Micropolitics

Sithole, B. 2001 Uncovering shrouded identities: institutional considerations and differentiation in an adaptive co-management project in Zimbabwe. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

There are also various tools developed by others that we found useful to promote learning and catalyse changes and self-organisation, as well as improving adaptive capacity and resilience. For example:

Braakman, L. and Edwards, K. 2002 The art of building facilitation capacities: a training manual. RECOFTC, Bangkok, Thailand. 269p.

Cooperrider, D.L., Whitney, D. and Stavros, J.M. 2008 Appreciative inquiry handbook: for leaders of change. Berrett-Koehler.

Hall, J. and dan Hammond, S.A. What is appreciative inquiry. .

Meier, D. 2000 The accelerated learning handbook: a creative guide to designing and delivering faster, more effective training programs. McGraw-Hill, New York.


These activities continue to address, in various ways, the goals of the ACM programme, which were to achieve more sustainable and equitable management of forest resources and human well-being in a multi-stakeholder environment through the development and identification of a set of models, institutional arrangements, methods, tools and strategies to empower local communities.