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1.

Menunggang badai.
Untaian kehidupan, tradisi dan kreasi aktor mebel Jepara
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor, Indonesia
Purnomo, H.; Irawati, R.H.; Melati; eds


PDF: Indonesia
(2.1 MB)

Abstract

Perdagangan mebel dunia berkembang sangat pesat dan mencapai hampir 1,4 milyar dolar AS pada tahun 2010. Mebel dari kayu jati dan mahoni paling diminati di dunia karena alasan kekuatan dan estetika, dan Indonesia sebagai salah satu pemasok terbesar dunia, sangat berkepentingan dengan keberlanjutan industri mebel ini karena penyerapan tenaga kerja yang besar, teknologi yang relatif dikuasai, dan bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Mebel jati juga merupakan catatan budaya dari peradaban masyarakat terutama masyarakat Jepara yang telah menjadikannya tradisi sejak berabad lalu, dan berdasarkan data dari Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Jepara tahun 2010 Jepara diperkirakan menyumbang sekitar 10% dari total ekspor mebel Indonesia .

Dengan didanai oleh Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) dan dilaksanakan sejak tahun 2008 hingga 2013 yang akan datang, CIFOR bekerjasama dengan para pemangku kepentingan di tingkat lokal, nasional dan akademis telah melakukan penelitian kaji tindak (action research) rantai nilai mebel (Furniture Value Chain (FVC) Project). Penelitian kaji tindak mencakup rangkaian refleksi, perencanaan, tindakan dan pemantauan yang dilakukan berulang-ulang . “Refleksi” merupakan pengkajian dan pemahaman yang dalam tentang mebel Jepara. Sedangkan “perencanaan” menggambarkan kegiatan-kegiatan yang akan dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja pengrajin Jepara. Perencanaan tersebut kemudian ditindaklanjuti dengan “tindakan” nyata di lapangan, serta dilakukan “pemantauan” atas dampak dari tindakan tersebut. Di dalam buku ini diungkapkan pengalaman pribadi para pelaku industri mebel. Mereka adalah pengrajin kecil independen, kelompok pengrajin kecil, penggiat sosial, pemilik perusahaan besar dan pejabat pemerintah. Dari cerita-cerita tersebut diharapkan kita dapat mengambil pelajaran untuk meningkatkan keberlangsungan industri mebel di Jepara. Ini dilakukan tidak hanya karena alasan ekonomi dan kesejahteraan masyarakat tetapi juga karena alasan budaya dan kegigihan masyarakat mempertahankan karya dan peradaban mereka.


2.

Furniture and people: a photo journey from market to forest (2009).
Purnomo, H.; Melati; Irawati, R.H.


PDF: English
(15.6 MB)

Abstract

The use of teak in furniture making has long been a part of Javanese culture. Historical records dating back to the seventh century BCE describe the abundance of teak forests in Central Java and the formation of skilled carpentry groups who used its timber for the Kalingga, Majapahit, Demak and Mataram kingdoms. The Javanese consider teak and items made from teak a valuable part of their material culture, a species apart from other types of wood.

Local carvers and furniture makers absorbed the influences of Chinese, Indian, Arabic and European designers, producing to this day highly sought after furniture wrought with intricate carving. The seventeenth century port city of Jepara, once a bustling centre of maritime commerce, remains today a major centre of furniture production and export in Central Java.

The Indonesian furniture industry faces challenges as it struggles to secure its place in competitive global markets. Business relations between furniture producers and their buyers are usually unbalanced: buyers set their price and producers cannot negotiate a better deal. These uneven relations are part of the legacy from Javanese court practices. Patron–client relationships among members of the Javanese royal household and their subservient carpenters have defined that imbalance since the seventh century, when Queen Shima instructed her skilled workers to create custom furniture and art objects for her palace without compensating them.

Export industry also developed under royal patronage. In 1700, Queen Kalinyamat encouraged her woodworkers to produce high quality furniture for international trade.  Patrons supported woodworkers by instructing product design, opening access to markets and ensuring steady orders. Their role was considered god-given, highly honoured and never questioned. These patron–client relationships are still evident in contemporary business practices in the Indonesian furniture industry.

The Furniture Value Chain project is assessing opportunities for improving the added value of Indonesian furniture products which, in turn will likely improve the livelihoods of millions of people involved in the industry, despite the current economic gloom. Indonesians can build on their comparative advantages to identify their specific strengths vis-à-vis the international and domestic market.

‘Furniture value chain’ describes the series of activities required to bring a product or service from raw materials and conception or design, through different phases of production, to delivery to final consumers and disposal after use. The value chain applies a systemic lens to a particular product. This bigger picture helps explain at what point in the chain value is added, and helps analyse where those participating in it can boost their income.

Good value chain analysis allows industry leaders, small holders and policy makers a systematic way to view the interactions between enterprises and firms along the chain to consider free market forces and governance for an efficient and profitable industry. Power asymmetries among various actors shows up through economic analysis of the links in the value chain.