Proponents of REDD+ subnational initiatives are facing huge challenges that threaten to undermine the potential of REDD+ to deliver the large contributions to GHG reductions that have been hoped for (Sunderlin et al. 2014; Sunderlin et al. 2015). The largest of these challenges concern the insecurity of tenure arrangements at all scales (national, subnational, within site boundaries) and the currently unfavorable economics of REDD+, which favor business‑as‑usual interests. Site‑level conditional incentives aimed at changing the behavior of deforestation agents were originally expected to become a hallmark of REDD+ in subnational initiatives, but our data show most proponents believe other interventions will be the primary means through which forest‑based GHG emissions reduction will be achieved at their sites. It is not clear what this means for the future of REDD+. On the one hand, this may be a legacy of familiarity with, and dependence on, other non‑conditional interventions (e.g. in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects or ICDPs), or it may merely reflect the fact that proponents have not had enough experience with conditional incentives to single them out as the most important intervention, as envisioned at the inception of REDD+. On the other hand, it may signal that the enabling conditions for REDD+ are not yet in place, and that proponents might not be able to wait much longer for those conditions to emerge. With the new Paris Agreement, there are now opportunities for strong action on the national and subnational policy front to assure that the years of hard work done to lay the groundwork for forest‑based climate change mitigation have not been in vain.
The challenge of establishing REDD+ on the ground: Insights from 23 subnational initiatives in six countries
Perubahan penggunaan lahan, rencana tata ruang wilayah dan implikasinya bagi pelaksanaan inisiatif REDD+ di Kabupaten Katingan, Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah