Project Locations

The project covers six countries: Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, Peru, Tanzania and Vietnam.

Our research has contributed to policy processes from global to local levels. The project team contributes regularly to global policy discussions, through presentations at events such as COP and SBSTTA, and at various scientific conferences. At the national level, project scientists in Brazil provided technical advice to Ministry of Environment on environmental incentive programs such as the Bolsa Verde and Payment for Environmental Services programs, and in Vietnam supported the Forestry Department in their revision of the national policy for Payment for Forest Environmental Services. A series of participatory workshops convening actors from multiple levels and sectors to describe possible future scenarios of land use was held in Peru, Tanzania and Indonesia, where representatives of diverse organizations such as indigenous communities, local, regional, and national government agencies, and NGOs, described indicators of good multilevel governance to serve as inputs to a governance monitoring tool which could be applied to REDD+ benefit sharing.

Contact: Sven Wunder (

The research focuses on the key question: What trade-offs in terms of cost-effectiveness and land user income do policy makers face when attempting to integrate sticks (C&C) and carrots (PES) for forest conservation (Brazil)? It looks at how two policy instruments combined or in isolation affect the 3Es (effectiveness, efficiency, and equity). Similar work is ongoing in Peru and Indonesia.

Key publication: Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach

Contact: Samuel Assembe-Mvondo (

A comparative assessment of forest and agriculture land revenue redistribution mechanisms in Cameroon is ongoing to draw lessons for REDD+ benefit sharing. The preliminary findings demonstrates that different forestry and wildlife revenue sharing mechanisms in Cameroon evaluated in this framework are not entirely consistent with the 3E (effectiveness, efficiency and equity) criteria and the forest policy objectives for reducing rural poverty and promoting local development have not been achieved.

Key publication: Assessment of the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of benefit-sharing schemes under large-scale agriculture: lessons from land fees in Cameroon

Contact: William Sunderlin (

A focus of our research in Indonesia is in measuring the costs of implementing REDD+ subnational initiatives. A detailed template is being developed for assessing financial costs by categories and evaluating who bears the costs. Similar work is being carried out for another subnational REDD+ initiative Brazil and two in Tanzania.

Contact: Anne Larson (

The research in Peru focuses on understanding multilevel forest and land governance in the context of REDD+. The work examines benefit sharing as a multilevel and multi-sectorial challenge and examines the legitimacy of existing benefit sharing activities to draw lessons for REDD+. Similar work is ongoing in Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam.

Key publication: The legitimacy of multilevel governance structures for benefit sharing: REDD+ and other low emissions options in Peru

Infographic: The complicated multi-level, multi-jurisdictional landscape of Madre de Dios, Peru

Contact: Esther Mwangi (

In Tanzania, Peru and Indonesia, research is ongoing to examine the linkages between rights that communities have, and their effects on REDD benefit sharing arrangements, using survey methods, behavioral experiments and focus group discussions.

Contact: Pham Thu Thuy (

Research is ongoing to understand local-to-national perceptions of equity in the ongoing Payments for Forest Environmental Services (PFES) and its implications for effective forest management behavior.

Key publication: Local preferences and strategies for effective, efficient and equitable PES benefit distribution options in Vietnam: Lessons for REDD+